In this issue
Apache Site: www.apache.org
Release: 1.2.4 (Released 22nd August 1997)
Beta: 1.3b3 (Released 20th November 1997)
Apache 1.2.4 is the current stable release. Users of Apache
1.2.3 and earlier should upgrade to this version. The next
release will be 1.3. A beta test release of 1.3 is available
now for both Unix and Windows 95/NT systems.
Bugs fixed in 1.3b4
These bugs have been found and fixed in 1.3b4.
Because of the major differences between Windows and Unix,
these are separated into bugs which affect Windows systems
only, and other bugs (which may affect Windows as well). Unix
users can ignore the bugs listed in the Windows section.
If the default handler sends out a zero length file using
memory mapping (mmap) it may incorrectly log an error
saying that "mmap failed".
Patches for bugs in Apache 1.2.4 may be made available in the
to 1.2.4 directory on the Apache site. Some new features
and other unofficial patches are available in the 1.2
patches directory. For details of all previously reported
bugs, see the Apache bug database and
bugs pages. Also many common configuration questions are
answered in the Apache FAQ.
Development has slowed down over the last couple of weeks to
prepare for the release of Apache 1.3. During the beta
release cycle Apache is in a "feature freeze" where no new
features will be added. The only changes from now on will be
The December Netcraft Survey
Server shows little change in market share over the past
month for the free servers. Apache has increased very
slightly (by 0.05%), but the overall number of servers known
to be based on Apache is down slightly by 0.07% (to 49.90%).
However the number of sites using Microsoft servers has gone
up by 2.85%, mainly at the expense of commercial servers with
smaller market share (for example, the total of servers
running on Macintosh platforms is down by 2.54%).
The total number of sites surveyed is still growing, so the
absolute number of sites running each of the major servers is
still increasing. This is particularly evident on the first
diagram on Netcraft's graphs
page. Apache now has over three-quarters of a million
sites, while Microsoft servers are used on more than 360,000
week we explained how Apache works on Windows 95 and NT
systems. This week we show how to download and install the
current beta, 1.3b3, without having to compile Apache
yourself. Unfortunately this process is not as easy or
trouble-free as it should be, but future beta releases will
To get Apache for Windows NT or 95, first download the
following two files from www.apache.org (or a mirror site):
The first is the installer for Apache. When run it will ask
for the directory to install Apache into, with a default of
\Program Files\Apache. If you are using Windows
NT and want to run Apache as a service, you should change
this to \apache.
This installer does not include the documentation or source
code, so this needs to be installed separately by running the
second program. This is a self-extracting archive, and when
it starts you should select the directory in which you
installed Apache. This will add the subdirectories
htdocs and src to your installed
You now have Apache installed on your system. If you are
running it on Windows NT you can now install it as a service,
see below. You can also start it from the command line, and
on Windows 95 you have to start it from the command line.
Start Apache on the Command Line
To run Apache from the command line, start a command prompt
window and change into your installed Apache directory, then
apache -d "/program files/apache"
to start Apache going. The -d option gives the directory in
which you installed Apache. (Note that here, as in all
configuration directives, you must use Unix-style forward
slashes for path separators, not DOS-style backslashes). You
must always give the -d argument unless you installed Apache
into \Apache. If you use this method of starting
Apache on Windows NT you should also add the -s
argument to prevent Apache waiting to start up an Apache
Start Apache as a Service
On Windows NT you should install Apache as a service and
start and stop it from the services manager. To install
Apache as a service, open a command prompt window and change
into the \apache directory, and enter
Now you can start (and later stop) Apache from the Services
manager (Start Menu, Control Panel, Services).
To remove Apache from the services list, run
This is still an early beta of Apache on Window systems, so
changes will be made in future versions. In particular,
future releases should come as a single installable file
containing all parts of Apache, and it should work better in
directories other than \Apache. On Windows NT,
the installer may add the Apache service automatically.
Byte looks at how free software is developed, in The Value
of Free Software (December 1997). Covering Apache, Perl,
Linux and other free software, it defines the "Cathederal"
and "Bazaar" processes of software development (from a
paper by Eric Raymond). It also shows how free software
development encourages commercial activities, such as support
and value-added products. It offers some reasons why
individuals would spend time ewriting code for free. Finally
it lists some things freeware projects often have in common,
although unlike Perl or Linux, Apache does not have an
indentifiable "personable leader".